Glossary of Carpet Terms

GLOSSARY OF CARPET TERMS

Absorbent Pad (or Bonnet) cleaning – A cleaning process using a minimal amount of water, where detergent solutions are sprayed onto either vacuumed carpet or a cotton pad, and a rotary cleaning machine is used to buff the carpet.  The soil is transferred from the carpet to the buff pad, which is changed or cleaned as it becomes soiled.

Adhesive – A substance that dries to a film capable of holding materials together by surface attachment.

Anchor Coat – A latex or adhesive coating applied to the back of tufted carpet to lock the tufts and prevent them from being pulled out under normal circumstances.

Antimicrobial – A chemical treatment added to carpet to reduce the growth of common bacteria, fungi, yeast, mold and mildew.

Antistatic – A carpet’s ability to dissipate an electrostatic charge before it reaches a level that a person can feel.

Attached Cushion – Adhering a cushioning material, (foam, rubber, urethane, PVC, etc.), to the back of carpet.

Autoclave – Equipment that uses pressure and super-heated steam to heatset the twist into yarn.

Average Pile Density – The weight of pile yarn in a cubic yard of carpet.  It is calculated by multiplying the pile weight by 36, then dividing that product by the pile height (in inches).  A calculation used primarily in the commercial carpet industry.

Average Pile Yarn Weight – Mass per unit area of the pile yarn including unexposed portions of the pile yarn.  In the U.S., it is usually expressed as ounces per square yard.

Axminster – A type of carpet where the pile is inserted one row of tufts at a time, each row representing a section of the overall pattern.  The tufts are U-shaped, and are anchored at the bottom into the primary backing that is simultaneously woven.  The backing may have a synthetic-starch or latex finish applied to it.  Axminster weaving has been traditionally used mostly for creating multicolored patterned carpets.

Backing (Primary and secondary) – Backing is fabric (in tufted carpet) that makes up the back of the carpet, as opposed to the carpet pile or face.  In tufted carpet, Primary backing is the material that the yarn is stitched through.  Secondary backing is added in the finishing process (after dyeing) and serves to add strength (dimensional stability) to the carpet, and insures the individual tufts are locked in place.  In woven carpet, the backing is the combination of the “construction yarns” which are interwoven with the face yarn.

Back Seams – Installation seams made with the carpet turned over or face down.  Opposite of “face seams” made with the carpet face up.  Both are on the back of the weaving or tufting operation.

Barberpole – Yarn coloration made possible by plying two or more yarns together, either of different colors or of differing propensity to accept dye.

Bas-Relief Carving – A process of multi-level carving, whereby the field area of the design is carved down and the design itself is made of the higher pile height.

BCF – See Bulked Continuous Filament.

 

Beam – Large, horizontal cylinders or spools.  Warp yarns are wound on beams and located on line in back of the weaving or tufting operation.

 

Berber – A carpet constructed with coarse yarns having randomly spaced flecks of color against a background of base color.  Currently, this term has expanded to describe many level or multi-level loop carpet styles.

 

Binding – A band or strip sewn over a rug or carpet edge to protect, strengthen or decorate the edge.

 

Bleeding – Transfer of fiber dyes from carpet or other fabrics by a liquid, usually water, with subsequent redepositing on other fibers.

 

Blend – A mixture of two or more fibers or yarns.

 

Bobbin – A spool-like device made of various materials, shapes and constructions with a head at one or both ends and a hole through its length, or barrel, for placement on a spindle or skewer.  It is used to hold yarn for spinning, weaving or sewing.

 

Bonded Urethane Cushion – A carpet cushion made from urethane trim, generated from urethane foam product manufacture, which has been granulated and bonded to form a porous foam material and fabricated into foam sheets.  Frequently used as a residential cushion.

 

Border Rug – A rug manufactured with one or more outside borders of one carpet style and a field (inside area) of another carpet type.

 

Bound Only Rug – A rug that is manufactured by simply cutting carpet to the size or shape desired to fit into a room (but not wall-to-wall) and bound.

 

Braided – Reversible oval or round rugs produced from braided strips of new or used material.

 

Breaking Strength – The ability or capacity of a material to withstand the ultimate tensile load or force required for rupture.

 

Broadloom – A term used to denote carpet produced in widths wider than 54 inches.  Broadloom is usually 12 feet wide.

 

Buckling – See Rippling.

 

Bulked Continuous Filament (BCF) – Strands of synthetic fiber (such as nylon or Olefin) that have been formed into bundles of yarn.  The fibers have undergone a process to add texture that makes the formerly straight filaments either kinked or curled.

 

Bulking (or Crimping) – Processing yarns, to fluff them up and give more coverage with the same weight.  This is usually accomplished by crimping the fiber.

 

Burling – A hand tailoring operation to remove any knots and loose ends, insert missing tufts of surface yarns.  A repair operation on worn or damaged carpet is called reburling.

Burns – Burns occur when the carpet yarn is exposed to an errant heat source and the fibers are melted or scorched.  Burns should be addressed immediately.  First, snip off the damaged fibers, then use a soap less cleaner and sponge with water.  If the damage is extensive, see a professional about repairs.

Cable – A yarn made by twisting two or more plied yarns together.  Typically a large, regular yarn.

 

Carding – In staple yarn manufacture, a process to remove impurities and short, unusable fibers.  The fiber is cleaned and aligned to form a continuous untwisted string called a sliver.

 

Carpet – Any textile floor covering that is not designated as a Rug.

 

Carpet Cushion – See Underlay.

 

Carpet Modules – Carpet packaged as squares, generally 18 inches by 18 inches (457 x 457 mm), with or without attached cushion backing.  Also referred to as carpet tiles.

 

Carpet Odor – Some new carpets and padding may have a noticeable odor.  Such odors usually disappear within a few days with ventilating and frequent vacuuming.

 

Carved Only – A rug manufactured using only one carpet component, whereby the (usually intricate) design is placed into that component via carving.

 

Carving – In handcrafted rug manufacture, whereby the component carpet(s) is (are) carefully cut down using a tool designed for that purpose to add a third dimension to the rug.

 

Carved/Uncarved Rugs – Rugs where both the inset only and the inset and carved techniques are used in the same rug.

 

Chain – In weaving: 1. The binder warp yarn that works over and under the filling yarns of the carpet; 2. Axminster loom refers to the endless chain that carries the tube frames; 3. Dobby loom – refers to the endless chain of pattern selector bars.

 

Chain Binders – Yarns running warp wise (lengthwise) in the back of a woven or woven interlock carpet, binding construction yarns.

 

Colorfastness – The measure of a carpet or yarn’s resistance to fading.

 

Commercial Matching – Matching of colors within acceptable tolerances mutually agreed upon by the buyer and seller.

 

Construction – The manufacturing method (i.e. tufted, woven) and the final arrangement of fiber and backing materials as stated in its specification.

 

Continuous Dye – This is a dyeing process geared toward maximizing production, where the greige carpet is passed under the dyeing equipment, and the dye solutions are “flowed on” to the carpet, rather than the carpet being immersed in the dyeing solution.

 

Continuous Filament – Continuous strands of synthetic fibers extruded in yarn form without the need for spinning, which natural fibers and synthetic staple fibers require for yarn formation.

 

Cord – A carpet where the pile hasn’t been cut in lines, giving it a ribbed look.

Corner Sample – A sample rug, whereby a small (usually 2 feet square) portion of the rug is manufactured to show either the technique used, or the design to be manufactured.

 

Cotton Count – A numbering system, previously used for cotton, now used for most staple fibers, based on length and weight.  It is the number of 840-yard skeins required weighing 1 pound, therefore, the higher the cotton count, the finer the yarn.

 

Cotton Fiber – A unicellular, natural fiber composed of cellulose.  The fibers clothe the seeds of an erect, freely branching tropical plant (cotton plant).  In carpet, its use is primarily for wrap yarns in woven carpet.  Today, it is seldom used as a face fiber, other than in rugs.

 

Cover – Degree to which the underlying structure is concealed by the face yarn.

 

Creel – The large frame used to hold yarn cones that directly feed yarn to the needles of a tufting machine.

 

Creeling – The process of mounting yarn packages on the yarn holder of the creel.

 

Crocking – A term used to describe excess color rubbing off as the result of improper dye penetration, fixation or selection.

 

Cross Dyed – Multicolored effects produced in a fabric with fibers of different dye affinities.

 

Cross Seams – Seams made by joining the ends of carpet together.

 

Cross Section – The shape of an individual filament or fiber when cut at right angles to its axis.  Manufactured fibers used for carpet may have various shapes, including round, trilobal and pentalobal, as well as hollow varieties.

 

Cushion – See Underlay.

 

Cushion Backed Carpet – See attached cushion.

 

Custom Tufted – Carpet or rugs in which pile yarns are manually tufted with hand machines or by narrow-width tufting machines.

 

Cut Pile – A carpet fabric in which the face is composed of cut ends of pile yarn.

 

Cut / Loop Pile – A carpet fabric in which the face is composed of a combination of cut ends of pile yarns and loops.

 

Dead Yarn – The pile yarn in a Wilton carpet that remains hidden in the backing structure when not forming a pile tuft.

 

Deep Dye Fibers – Modified synthetic fibers with increased dye affinity relative to regular dye fibers.  By combining deep dye fibers with regular dye fibers, a two-color or two-toned effect can be achieved within one dye bath.

 

Delamination – The separation of the secondary backing or attached cushion from the primary backing of the carpet.

 

Delamination Strength – Force required to remove secondary backing adhered to a finished carpet.

Delustered Fibers – Synthetic fiber in which brightness or reflectivity is reduced, usually by incorporation of a fraction of a percent of white pigment, such as titanium dioxide.  Fiber producers’ designations include dull, semi-dull and semi-bright, whereas bright fibers are nondelustered.

Denier (or Fiber Denier) – A direct yarn numbering measurement, it is the weight in grams of 9,000 meters of yarn.  Therefore, the higher the denier, the larger the yarn.  Typical nylon carpet fiber has 6 – 22 deniers.  This thickness of a fiber can be regulated by the size of the openings of the spinneret.

 

Density – Refers to the amount of pile yarn in the carpet and the closeness of the tufts.  In general, the denser the pile, the better the performance.  Density is often numerically referenced as the “Average Pile Density” (see that definition for a further explanation of the calculation).

 

Design Rug – A rug manufactured with design elements within the border, field or both.

 

Differential Dyeing Fibers – Fibers of the same generic type, natural or man-made, treated or modified so that their affinity for certain dyes becomes changed, thus creating a multicolored effect when dyed.

 

Dimensional Stability – The ability of the carpet to retain its original size and shape when subjected to outside forces (e.g. a secondary backing adds dimensional stability to carpet).

 

Direct Glue (Direct Glue Down) – An installation method whereby the carpet is adhered directly to the floor.

 

Double Back – Woven or nonwoven fabric laminated to the back of carpet with latex or other adhesive.  Double backed carpet has enhanced dimensional stability and strength.  See Backing.

 

Double Glue Down – An installation method whereby the carpet cushion is adhered to the floor first, and the carpet is then glued to the cushion.  Also referred to as Double Stick installation.

 

Drafting – Taking the carded staple fiber (known as sliver) and forming it into the proper length and width in preparation for the final yarn manufacture.

 

Drop Match (also see Set Match) – A pattern in carpet that repeats diagonally.

Each corresponding pattern element drops down a certain distance (usually a half pattern repeat in length) instead of simply repeating horizontally across the width.  In a quarter drop match, the design matches one quarter of the length of the repeat on the opposite side.

 

Dry Foam Cleaning (“Dry Extraction Cleaning”) – A cleaning process using a minimal amount of water, where dense foam is worked into the carpet with a reel type brushing machine.  The soil-laden foam is then removed using a wet vacuum, which is often part of the same equipment as the brush.

 

Dry Powder Cleaning (“Dry Extraction Cleaning”) – A cleaning process using a minimal amount of water, where an absorbent solvent laced powder is worked into the carpet, allowed to set for a period of time, and then it and the absorbed soil and dirt are vacuumed up.

 

Dry Rot – A condition caused by attack of microorganisms on fibers, textiles, carpets or other materials, characterized by less strength and integrity.  Attack on carpet backings permits carpet to break and tear easily.  Natural materials, such as jute, are susceptible, whereas polypropylene and most other synthetics are resistant.

Dutchman – Installer’s term for a narrow strip seamed onto standard width carpet to fit oddly dimensioned areas.  Proper planning will minimize the need for this practice.

Dye Beck – A very large vat with a reel to hold carpet, which is dyed in a solution of water and chemicals by carefully raising the water temperature and adjusting the pH so that the dye sites are opened to accept the dye.  We believe this form of dyeing (which is the method Fabrics uses) allows for a more controlled and consistent color match.

 

Dye Lot – This is the amount of a particular carpet that can be dyed together in one lot (or made from yarn that was dyed together), to insure that each yard is absolutely the same color.

 

Dye Lot Variation – The amount that a color can vary and still be considered a “match”, without physically being in the same dye lot.

 

Dye Penetration – The ability of a dyeing process to color yarns completely from the tip to the base of the yarn.  Beck dyeing typically allows for better dye penetration than continuous dyeing.

 

Dye Sites – An irregular, positively charged area on the surface of a fiber which has a propensity to accept dye.

 

Dye Spots – Concentrations of more intensely dyed carpet, usually resulting from dye that is applied more heavily to one area of the carpet than to the rest.  This is a problem more often associated with continuous dyeing than beck dyeing.

 

Dye Stuffs – Highly colored substances capable of permanent chemical or physical attachment to textile fibers.  These are in dry powdered form or liquid form.  They are the materials used to mix with water to create the dye “liquor” which is, in turn, mixed with water and other chemicals and used to dye carpet.

 

Dye Streaks – Relatively long, narrow variations of color running lengthwise in direction.  Dye streaks are associated with improper continuous dyeing, or in beck dyeing applications with yarn manufacturing difficulties, or as a result of mixing yarn lots.  A moderate level of streaking is almost always present in Saxony carpets made from plied heatset yarns, and should be considered a characteristic of this type of carpet.

 

Embossed – A pattern formed when thick, twisted yarns are used on a base of lower, lighter yarns to create an engraved appearance.

 

Extrusion – A yarn manufacturing term, this is the process whereby near liquid nylon (or other material) is forced through a spinneret (a sieve like apparatus) to “extrude” the very fine fibers that are either cut, mixed and bundled into yarn (“staple”), or bundled into yarn in long strands (“filament”).

 

Face Seams – Sewn or cemented seams made without turning the carpet over or face down.  They are used during installations when back seaming is impossible.

 

Face Weight – Refers to the amount of fiber (per square yard) that is in the face of the carpet (total weight less the weight of the backing).  However, this is different than density because tall, less dense tufts may have the same face weight as short, dense tufts.  On average, short, dense tufts will be more resistant to wear and matting.

 

Fading – All carpet (like any textile product) is subject to color changes over time.  This change is very gradual and is caused by oxidation through exposure to the open air within the home.  Due to damaging ultraviolet rays, areas exposed to sunlight are subject to more dramatic color changes.

We recommend that you take steps to protect these areas during high sunlight exposure hours by using draperies or other window coverings.  It will help if a reputable company tints your windows if the window warranty allows, but tinting alone is not a substitute for window coverings.

Felting – Similar to fiber bonding, except in the yarn form or non-woven fabric form, whereby the individual fibers are mechanically entangled (using a bank of needles) prior to the completion of the yarn manufacture.

 

Fiber – Natural or man-made materials having very high aspect ratios.  That is, having lengths hundreds to thousands of times greater than their widths.  Useful textile fibers have high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to heat, light, chemical, and abrasives.  Any substance which can be made into yarn.

 

Fiber Bonded (or Needle punch) – Carpet produced directly from individually colored (usually synthetic) fibers.  The fibers are laid as a thick web and fed through a bank of barbed needles.  This entangles the fibers (forming a felted surface), which are then impregnated with a chemical which, after drying, bonds the fibers permanently together.  ‘Second generation’ products use an additional needling process to convert plain surfaces to ribs, velour’s and patterned textures.  Chemical backings (such as high-density foam and PVC) can be applied for use in suitable locations.

 

Fiber Bundle – A number of fibers positioned together.

 

Fiber Cushion – Term used to describe separate carpet cushion made of needle-felted animal hair, jute, other fibers or fiber blends.  Some are rubberized and may have one or two rubber surfaces.

 

Field – The largest (typically the center) portion of a rug.

 

Filament – A single continuous strand of natural or synthetic fiber.

 

Filament Yarn – A type of yarn whereby the individual fibers are much longer and tend not to be mixed, but rather bundled together before being twisted and heatset into yarn.

 

Filler – A low cost material used for extending rubber, plastic or other polymers.  Fillers are generally powders of very small particle size.  Carpet latex laminating compounds and foams contain large amounts of fillers.  The most common filler in carpet latex is finely powdered calcium carbonate, often called “whiting”, produced by grinding limestone.

 

Filling Yarn – In weaving, any yarn running across the width of the fabric perpendicular to the wrap yarns.  In woven carpet, filling yarns are part of the group of construction yarns that also include chain and stuffer warp and form the backing.  Woven carpet fill and chain warp yarns interface to secure the pile yarns.  Filling and other construction yarns usually are cotton, polypropylene, jute, polyester, fiberglass or similar materials.

 

Film Yarn – Yarn produced by slitting extruded films into narrow strips.  Slit film, polypropylene yarns are woven into fabrics used as primary backings in tufted carpet.

 

Finishing – A collective term denoting final processing of carpet and textiles subsequent to tufting, weaving and dyeing.  Carpet finishing processes include application of soil retardant and antistatic chemicals, steaming, application of secondary backing, application of attached foam cushion, back beating, brushing, shearing and others.

 

Flocked Carpet – Carpet composed of short, chopped fiber or flock that is adhered, usually by electrostatic processes, to a base fabric, resulting in a short pile material with a velvety texture.

Flooring Radiant Panel – Laboratory testing device for measuring the critical radiant flux of horizontal mounted floor covering systems exposed to a flaming ignition source in a graded radiant heat energy environment.

 

Fluffing – See Shedding.

 

Frames – Racks at back of the Wilton loom holding spools from which yarns are fed into the loom.  Each frame holds a separate color, thus a 3-frame Wilton has three colors in the design.

 

Free Form – A floor area bound by walls and of irregular shape.  Sometimes called “form-fit area”.

 

Frieze (also known as Trackless or Textured) – A “frieze” (pronounced “fri-ZAY”) is a cut pile carpet manufactured with yarn twisted so tightly it curls when cut.  This curling can either be paired with a flowing, “windswept” look, or a dense, tightly packed construction to yield very differently beautiful looks.

In either case, the tightly twisted yarn creates a casual, elegant finish that helps mask the appearance of footprints and vacuum tracks.  It also provides outstanding durability for the active family.

 

Fringe – A decorative design element consisting of decorative edging and loose threads that is added to the edge (typically the ends) of a rug.  Fabrics offers fringe as unknotted, single knot or double knot.

 

Fuzzing – See Shedding.

 

Gauge – In tufting, the distance between two needle points expressed in fractions of an inch (also see Gauge/Pitch).

 

Gauge/Pitch – The number of ends of surface yarn counting across the width of carpet.  In woven carpet, pitch is the number of ends of yarn in 27 inches of width; e.g., 216 divided by 27 = eight ends per inch.  In tufted carpet, gauge also means the number of ends of surface yarn per inch counting across the carpet; e.g., 1/8 gauge = eight ends per inch.  To convert gauge to pitch, multiply ends per inch by 27; e.g., 1/10 gauge is equivalent to 270 pitch, or 10 ends per inch x 27.  One-eighth gauge is eight ends of yarn per inch x 27 = 216 pitch.

 

Generation – An informal reference indicating large improvements in the general development of the nylon fiber as used in carpet (i.e. first generation nylons were the earliest, progressing from there through the current fifth generation).

 

Greige – Undyed, unfinished carpet.

 

Grinning – In carpet where the primary backing can be seen between individual tufts of carpet, typically between adjoining rows.

 

Ground Color – In carpet, the background color against which the top colors create the pattern or figure in the design.

 

Gully – The distance between the tackless strip and the wall.  It should always be slightly less than the thickness of the carpet.

 

Hand – Used to describe the tactile quality, or how a carpet or textile feels to the touch.  While many aspects of manufacture (twist, fiber, weight, denier, density, etc.) go into developing a carpet’s “hand”, obviously a carpet with a soft, appealing hand will feel soft and comfortable to the touch.

Handcrafted Rug – A rug manufactured by the meticulous cutting of the component carpet materials, the assembly of those materials into the design element of the rugs, and gluing them in place.  If carving is to be performed, that is done just before the application of the rug backing.

 

Heat Bonded – A type of carpet construction whereby the face fibers are bonded to the primary backing, rather than being tufted through, or woven into, the backing.

 

Heather – A multicolor effect provided by blending fibers of different colors prior to spinning carpet yarn.

 

Heat setting (or Heatset) – A yarn manufacturing term, this is the process whereby heat or steam is applied to the twisted yarn to increase the yarn’s ability to hold its twist over time.  This promotes the fiber’s ability to “bounce back” when it is temporarily crushed under foot.

 

High Density Foam – Attached carpet cushion made from compounded natural and/or synthetic latex foam, having a minimum density of 17 pounds per cubic foot and a minimum weight of 38 ounces per square yard.

 

Highlighting – See Shading.

 

High Low – Multilevel carpet style combining high and low loop pile areas or high cut pile and low loop areas.  The latter is also called a cut / loop style.

 

Hot Melt Adhesive – Thermoplastic adhesive material sometimes used for laminating secondary backing to tufted carpet.  Hot melt adhesives are compounded from thermoplastic polymers and plastics.  They may be melted and solidified repeatedly by application of heat.

 

Hot Melt Seaming Tape – See Seaming Tape.

 

Inset and Carved – A Handcrafted rug in which there is carving to the surface of the component carpets.

 

Inset Only – A Handcrafted rug in which there is no carving to the surface of the component carpets.

 

Jacquard – An apparatus for a carpet weaving loom that produces patterns from colored yarns.  The pattern information is contained on perforated cards.  The holes in the cards activate the mechanism that selects the color to be raised to the pile surface.  Wilton looms have jacquard pattern devices.

 

Jute – A natural bast fiber made from certain plants of the linden family, which grow in warm climates, such as those found in India and Bangladesh.  Jute yarns are used for woven carpet construction (backing) yarns.  Woven jute fabrics are used in tufted carpet as secondary backing.

 

Knee Kicker – A carpet installation tool used to make minor adjustments by stretching carpet (for installation with a tackless strip).  By industry standards, the majority of this stretch must be performed using a power stretcher.

 

Knitted Carpet – Carpet produced in a fabric formation or process by interlacing yarns in a series of connected loops.  As in weaving, pile and backing are produced simultaneously.  Multiple sets of needles interlace pile, backing and stitching yarns in one operation.

 

Latex – A water based synthesis of synthetic rubber, natural rubber or other polymers.  Latex is used to laminate secondary backing to primary backing in carpet manufacture.  It is also used to adhere a rug backing as well.

Leno Weave – A woven fabric construction in which paired warp yarns twist around one another between fill yarn picks.  It is similar to woven gauze bandage construction.  Leno construction renders the yarns relatively immobile within the fabric, making possible very open weaves that are relatively stable.  Woven polypropylene secondary backings for tufted carpets are generally of leno weave construction.

 

Level Cut / Loop (also known as Pattern Cut Pile) – This type of carpet features a sophisticated look created by running cut pile and loop pile on a level pile height.  The cuts and loops can appear random, or they can be arranged to create a distinct pattern.

 

Level Loop – This type of carpet features yarn on the face of the carpet which forms loops of basically the same height, with both ends laminated into the carpet backing.

 

Loom – Machine that produces woven fabrics.  In weaving, lengthwise yarns (warp) are interlaced with weft yarns (fill) by the shuttle or other devices, such as gripper or rapier.

 

Loop Pile – Carpet style having a pile surface consisting of uncut loops.  May be woven or tufted.  In woven carpet it is called “round wire”.

 

Luster – Brightness, sheen, or reflectivity of fibers, yarns, or carpet.  Synthetic fibers are produced in various luster classifications including bright, semi-bright, semi-dull and dull.  Bright fibers usually are clear (have no white pigment), whereas the duller designations have small amounts of white pigments, such as titanium dioxide.  Luster of finished carpet also depends upon yarn heat-setting methods, dyeing and finishing.  In high traffic commercial areas, duller carpet is often preferred for soil-hiding ability.

 

Markers – Colored yarns woven into the backs of woven carpets to aid installers in achieving correct pattern match and pile direction.

 

Match, Set or Drop – Pattern match designates the arrangement and dimensions of the repeating units making up the design of patterned carpet, including woven patterns, prints, tufted high/lows and others.  In set match, this rectangular pattern unit is arranged in parallel rows across the carpet width.  In a half drop pattern, the start of each pattern repeat unit is transposed to the midpoint of the side of the adjacent unit.  In quarter drop match, each unit would start of the measurement in inches past the neighboring pattern unit’s starting point.  Thus, pattern repeat units in drop match repeat diagonally across the width, and in set match, they repeat straight across the width perpendicularly to the length.  Pattern repeat dimensions and match are significant to specifiers and purchasing agents because they influence the amount of excess carpet (over measured area) needed in multiple width installations.

 

Matting – Severe pile crush, most often combined with the unintended entanglement of fibers or tufts.

 

Mending – Hand repair of carpet after tufting and weaving to replace missing tufts, remove knots and loose ends, etc.

 

Metallic Fiber – Synthetic fiber made of metal, metal coated plastic or plastic coated metal sometimes used in small amounts in carpet to dissipate static electricity, thus preventing shock.

 

Miter Joint – A junction of two pieces of carpet (or other material) at an angle.  Most miter joints involve pieces at right angles to one another with their ends cut at 45 degrees to form the joint.

 

Monochromatic – A carpet or similar material that is dyed in a single color.  However, differences in cut versus loop pile yarn and/or other textural differences can make monochromatic carpet seem to be multi-shaded.

Monofilament – A single, continuous strand of synthetic polymer in the form of a filament large and strong enough to be used as a textile yarn.

 

Moresque – A distinctive textural appearance given to carpet by the use of yarns that have been twisted with other yarns of different colors or shades.  Moresque yarns thus have a “barberpole” appearance.  Moresque carpet in suitable colors Is a good soil hider in high traffic areas.

 

Multi-filament – Synthetic yarns composed of a multiplicity of continuous fiber strands extruded together, usually, from the multiple holes of a single spinneret.  Multi-filament carpet yarns are textures to increase bulk and cover, and are called “bulked continuous filament” yarns or BCF yarns.

 

Multi-Level Cut/Loop Pile – This type of carpet features a sophisticated look created by running cut pile and loop pile, but the loops can be varying heights.  The cuts and loops can appear random, or they can be arranged to create a distinct pattern.

 

Multi-Level Loop Pile – Similar to a level loop, varying heights of carpet features yarn on the face of the carpet that forms loops, of varying heights.  The various heights can be random, or they can be arranged to create a distinct pattern.

 

Nap – Another term for pile, usually used when discussing the pile direction, or the direction that the carpet came off the tufting machine.

 

Narrow Carpet – Woven carpet less than six feet wide, as distinguished from broadloom.

 

Needle

  • Tufting – An eyed needle that inserts yarns into primary backing to form tufts.
  • Needle punching – Barbed felting needles that entangle and compress fibrous fleeces into needled felts, such as those used for outdoor carpet.
  • Knitting – Hooked needles that form the loops of knitted fabric.
  • Axminster Weave – An eyed needle that delivers filling yarn across the loom through the wrap yarn shed.

 

Nonwoven – A fabric manufactured directly from fibers or filaments or from a web of fibers without the yarn preparation needed for weaving, knitting or tufting.

 

Nosing – The front dividing line of a step, where the top of a riser joins the front of a tread.

 

Nylon – A synthetic fiber first discovered by DuPont (now Invista) chemists in 1938, but not used in carpet until much later.  Today it is the most often used fiber for carpet (Fabrics uses it exclusively in our synthetic products) and can come in either filament or staple form.  Features include cleanability, dyeability, stain and soil resistance, resistance to abrasion, ability to recover resiliency, moth proof, mildew proof, non-allergenic and color retention.

From the introduction of nylon for use in the manufacturing of carpet, producers have been continually improving the character of nylon fibers, making them more desirable and durable as a floor covering.  Nylon has become the fiber of choice for high quality carpet.

The manufacturing advancements mentioned above have been commonly referred to as “generations” within the carpet industry.  The most recent generation is the fifth generation, boasting anti-staining qualities as never before.

 

Olefin (or Polypropylene) – A synthetic fiber used for some conventional, as well as indoor-outdoor, carpets.  This fiber is produced in continuous filament, fibrillated and staple form; solution dyed.  Polypropylene is known for stain resistance, easy cleanability, wearability, and a low absorption factor.  Other features include abrasion resistance, mildew proof, moth proof, non-allergenic, resiliency, color retention and recoverability.  Recommended for light traffic because it is less durable and less resilient than nylon.  It also exhibits poor appearance retention and pattern walk-out as compared with nylon.

 

Open Time – The time interval between the spreading of adhesive on a substrate and the appropriate placement of a floor covering material into the adhesive for bonding.

 

Oriental Rugs – Hand-woven rugs made in the Middle East and the Orient.

 

Overtufting – A manufacturing process whereby a previously tufted grieve good is re-tufted, usually adding a differing design element.

 

Package Dyed – Yarn is dyed while wound on perforated tubes or wire forms.  The package dye machine forces dye liquor through the yarn on the dye package.

 

Pad – See Underlay.

 

Pattern Cut Pile – See Level Cut / Loop.

 

Pattern Elongation – The deformation of a patterned carpet caused by unintended tensile force, yielding a pattern that appears “stretched” because it is longer than it was designed to be.

 

Pattern Match – The measurement of repeating units (measured in width and length) within the design of a particular carpet style.  When considering the purchase of patterned carpet, it is essential that your installer know the size of the pattern match as it could greatly affect the amount of carpet you will require.

 

Peaking – A seam that is peaking is one that is generally higher than the other areas of the carpet.  Most often this is due to improper carpet installation.  It is also caused by a carpet installer running the padding seams in the same direction as the carpet seams (normally, this should not be done).

 

Pick – In woven carpet or in backing, this is the number of yarns running widthwise across the yarns running lengthwise in the carpet or backing.

 

Piece Dyed – Carpet dyed by immersion in an aqueous dye bath in a dye beck.

 

Pigment – See Dye Stuffs.

 

Pigmented Yarns – Solution dyed yarns.

 

Pile – The visible surface of carpet, consisting of yarn tufts in loop and/or cut configuration.  Sometimes called “face” or “nap”.

 

Pile Crushing (carpet in use) – Pile crush will occur to some degree.  It is, in fact, unavoidable.  It will be most noticeable in high traffic lanes and under the legs of heavy pieces of furniture.  More frequent vacuuming will help minimize

This condition in heavy traffic areas.  Moving your furniture occasionally and using cups under the legs of furniture will also help minimize pile crushing.  When it does occur, gently brush the area with your hand to hasten the recovery.

 

Pile Crush (carpet in transit) – This is a term used for the specific type of crush that can normally occur during the shipment and storage of rolled carpet.  It can be especially apparent in a “Velvet Plush” carpet (like Chez), but can appear in any carpet style.  This condition is not permanent, and usually corrects itself as the carpet “conditions” to the environment.  The carpet purchaser can speed this process along with additional vacuuming.  Only in the most rare cases will steaming the carpet be required to cure this condition.

Pile Direction – This is the direction in which the pile naturally flows.  This corresponds to the direction that the carpet came off the tufting machine.

 

Pile Height – A measurement (usually in fractions of an inch) of the pile of a carpet, from the base of the primary backing to the tip of the yarn.

 

Pile Reversal – See Shading.

 

Pile Setting – Carpet cleaning term for the process of erecting the damp and disheveled pile after shampooing by means of a pile brush or pile lifting machine.

 

Pilling – This is a term used to describe the condition when small “pills” of fiber appear on the top of the carpet.  Some pilling can occur as a result of the type of fiber used to manufacture the carpet and the level of foot traffic.  Small amounts of pilling should simply be cut off the top of the carpet.  However, if you experience this phenomenon over a large area, contact a carpet professional.

 

Pill Test – A Federal standard for the measurement of the flammability of carpet or backing.  Passing or failing this test is measured as a function of the size of the burn resulting from a timed Methenamine burning tablet.

 

Pitch – See Gauge/Pitch.

 

Plied Yarn – A yarn composed of two or more single yarns twisted together.  Many two-ply yarns are used in carpet.  In cut pile carpet, e.g., Saxony, plied yarns must be heatset to prevent untwisting under traffic.  Multiple continuous filament yarns made by fiber producers are sometimes air-entangled rather than twisted.

 

Plush (or Plush Finish) – See Velvet Cut Pile.

 

Ply – This is a term used in describing how many single fibers are “plied” together to form a given yarn.  At Fabrics, we often use multiple plied yarns (2- and 3-ply are the most common), because they offer enhanced performance and a beautiful look.

 

Polyester – A synthetic fiber introduced in some products in the 1950’s, and carpet in the 1960’s.  It is made either as staple or continuous filament.  Its characteristics include good abrasion resistance, good color retention, and ability to accept bright, vivid colors, stain resistance, and wearability.  It is moth proof, stain and soil resistant, mildew resistant and non-allergenic.  Recommended for light traffic because it is less durable and less resilient than nylon.  It also exhibits poor appearance retention and pattern walk-out as compared with nylon.

 

Polymers – High molecular weight, chemical compounds formed by repeated linking of smaller chemical units called monomers.  Polymers from which fibers are made are long chain molecules in which the monomers are linked end-to-end linearly.  Synthetic polymers used for carpet fiber include nylon 6, 6 and nylon 6 (polyamides), polyester, polypropylene and polyacrylonitrile (acrylics).  In popular terminology, polymers are also called plastics or resins.

 

Polypropylene – See Olefin.

 

Pooling – See Shading.

 

Power Stretcher – A carpet installation tool used to stretch carpet (for installation with a tackless strip).  According to industry standards, residential carpet, installed over cushion with a tackless strip, must be power stretched to prevent wrinkles and ripples.

 

Pre-Installation – Typically in rug manufacture (most often on staircases), this is when the broadloom component of a rug is installed before design components are added to it, so that the exact placement of those elements can be controlled.

 

Prime Urethane Cushion – Separate carpet cushion made from virgin polyurethane foam.  The sheet of foam is cut from large “loaves”.  As opposed to prime cushion, rebonded polyurethane is made from recovered scrap.

 

Printed Carpet – A carpet that is dyed (usually in patterns) by using either flatbed screen printing, rotary screen printing, sponge printing or what is basically a very large inkjet printer.

 

Primary Backing – See Backing.

 

Puckering – An installation problem when one side of the carpet is longer than the other side of the adjoining edge.  The oversized carpet gathers in the form of wrinkles or pleats at the seam.

 

Quarter – A woven carpet term that designates the width of narrow carpet.  It is one quarter of a yard, or nine inches.  At one time, most woven carpet was made on narrow looms.  Widths such as 27 inches and 36 inches were commonly called three-quarter and four-quarter carpet, respectively.

 

Quarter Drop-Match – See Match.

 

Quarter-Round – Wooden or plastic molding having a cross section comprising a 90 degree arc of a circle.  It is used at joints between walls and floors, or between larger moldings and floors.

 

Random Shearing – A carpet texture created by running loop pile carpet through the carpet shearer whereby high loops are actually cut to become cut pile.  Since cut pile is less reflective than loop pile, the resulting texture can actually appear to be different color.  Also referred to as Tip Shearing.

 

Rebond – See Bonded Urethane Cushion.

 

Rendering – A detailed, computer generated drawing of a proposed rug.  It is used to show both color placement (the colors used in the proposed rug) and to show a proposed design.

 

Repeat – See Pattern Match.

 

Resilience – The ability of carpet pile to recover its original appearance and thickness after being subjected to compressive forces or crushing under traffic.

 

Resist Printing – A technique for producing colored patterns wherein carpet is first printed with colorless chemicals that alter the dye affinity of the printed areas.  The printed areas in nylon carpet, for example, may be altered to be light dyeing and/or cationic dyeable relative to the untreated, regular, acid dyeable nylon.  Subsequent piece dyeing in a dye beck with appropriately selected dyestuffs produces a colored pattern.  In this fashion, numerous colorways may be produced from a single print run.

 

Re-stretch – Repeating the stretching-in procedure, subsequent to the initial installation.  This can be required if improperly installed, if the carpet is too easily stretched, or if there has been too much moisture introduced into the carpet.

 

Rippling – In properly installed carpet, rippling should rarely occur.  Even if it does occur, it would be in periods of very high heat and humidity.  If the carpet remains rippled after the period of very high heat and humidity passes, contact a professional carpet installer, who should use a power stretcher (rather than a “knee kicker”) to re-stretch the carpet.

Riser – The vertical or front surface of a step, rising from the back of a tread.

 

Rotary Brushing – A carpet cleaning technique in which a detergent solution is worked into the pile by a motor driven rotating brush.  Loosened soil and spent solution is often subsequently removed by vacuum.

 

Round Wire or Looped Pile – A Wilton or velvet carpet woven with the pile yarn uncut.  See Loop Pile.

 

Rows or Wires – In woven carpet this is the number of pile yarn tufts per running inch lengthwise.  Called “rows” in Axminster and “wires” in Wilton and velvet carpet.  Analogous to “stitches per inch” in tufted carpet.

 

Rubber – A term sometimes applied to carpet cushion made from rubber (foam or sponge), and used for both separate and attached cushion.

 

Rug – A textile based product that is typically placed on the floor (rather than wall-to-wall like carpet).

 

Saxony – A Saxony is a cut pile carpet with upright yarns in which the individual tips of yarn are clearly visible.  For centuries, Saxony has been the classic cut-pile construction.

 

Scale Drawing – A drawing, such as a building blueprint, having its measurements in fixed proportion to the actual dimensions of the room, floor or building depicted.  A typical scale might be “one quarter inch to the foot”.  On such a drawing, each quarter inch of linear dimension represents one foot of linear dimension in the actual structure.

 

Scribing – An installation term for the method of transferring the exact irregularities of a wall, floor or other surface onto a piece of carpet by a tracing technique.  The carpet is then cut to fit exactly.

 

Scrim – A reinforcing material glued to the seams in a rug to insure that they do not separate.

 

Seaming Tape – A tape, typically with an adhesive, used in the installation of carpet to bind two edges of carpet together.

 

Seams – In a carpet installation, the connection of the edges of two pieces of carpet using various seaming tapes, hand sewing or other techniques.

 

Seam Adhesive – See Seam Sealing.

 

Seam Sealing – A procedure involving coating the trimmed edges of two carpet pieces of carpet to be seamed with a continuous bead of adhesive in order to prevent fraying and raveling at the seam.

 

Secondary Backing – See Backing.

 

Self-Tone – A pattern of two or more shades of the same color.  When two shades are used in a pattern or design, it is called “two tone” or “tone-on-tone”.

 

Selvage – The side edges of a rug or carpet.

 

Serging – A method of finishing the edges of area rugs by use of heavy, colored yarn sewn around the edges in a close, overcast stitch.

 

Set Match (also see Drop Match) – The design component matches straight across on each side of the narrow width.

Sewing Pole – Any piece of wood or other material, more or less rounded, over which carpet may be laid In order to facilitate sewing and other related operations.  Most installers prefer a wooden pole about four inches in diameter that has been slightly flattened on one side.

 

Shading – After installation, carpet often appears to change color in certain areas.  This phenomenon does not involve a true color change, but rather a difference in light reflection between various surface areas.  Shading is not a manufacturing defect, but is actually considered to be the beauty of a cut pile carpet, simulating the look of velvet or suede.

The condition occurs due to the difference in light reflection between the sides and tips of the yarn strands.  As the pile surface is disturbed, the yarn sides will reflect more light than the tips, resulting in the highlighting feature so common in today’s styles.

Normally, this condition is temporary (such as with footprints).  In rare cases, the condition is permanent.  The latter is referred to as pooling or watermarking.  The reason for this condition is unknown except that it is traffic related and random in nature.  The pile fibers take on a permanent set based on the traffic patterns, and this set cannot be changed.

 

Shag – A carpet texture characterized by long pile tufts laid over in random directions in such a manner that the sides of the yarn form the traffic surface.  Modern shags are made from plied, heat-set yarns and are either cut pile or cut and loop styles.

 

Shear – In carpet manufacture, this is the process whereby a carpet is run flat through a machine that has large rollers with blades running around them.  This action takes the pile down by minute fractions of an inch to present a uniform finish.  Fabrica is known for its very refined finishes.  This is attributable to (among other things) the quality and numbers of passes the carpet makes through this equipment.

 

Shedding (or Fluffing or Fuzzing) – This is a “hairy” effect on the carpet surface caused by loose fibers or slack yarn twist, whereby the fibers slip out of the yarn bundle, either in service or wet cleaning.  Shedding is not a defect, but rather a characteristic of all new carpet, especially cut piles and wools.  It is caused by short fibers within the pile that work loose during service.

This condition is most evident in high traffic areas.  Although your vacuum bag may fill with this surplus fiber, the total fiber loss during use is relatively small.  Shedding will gradually decrease.  The length of time required to eliminate shedding is dependent upon the type and amount of vacuuming performed.

 

Shuttle – Part of a weaving loom that carries fill yarn back and forth across the fabric width.  In conventional looms, it contains a spool of fill yarn called a bobbin.

 

Side-by-Side Sample – A small sample placing two component pieces of carpet together to show how the coloration would look in a rug design.

 

Side Match – The level of match of the color and texture of a carpet from one side of its width to the other.  Poor side matching can result in visible seams.

 

Side Seams – Seams running the length of the carpet.  Sometimes called length seams.

 

Sisal – A product made of vegetable fibers such as coir, jute, paper and straw.  It is susceptible to stains, mold and mildew, and has a harsh surface, providing no comfort under foot.

 

Skein Dyeing – This is the process of dyeing carpet in the yarn stage, where the yarn is gathered onto individual skeins (yarn holders) and dyed.  The yarn is then re-wound onto yarn cones or yarn beams, and carpet is then tufted as “predyed” carpet.

 

Sliver – An intermediate stage in the production of staple yarns, where the yarn is carded (cleaned and aligned in the same direction) into a sliver, and is then drafted (properly proportioned) before being twisted and heatset.

 

Snags – Sharp edged objects can grab or snag a carpet yarn (exposed nails in ladies’ high-heels are a very common offender).  If your carpet is snagged, simply cut off the snagged yarn with a pair of sharp scissors.  Do not try to pull out these snags, as they are most likely attached to other yarns in the carpet itself, which can then be loosened as well.  If the snag is especially large, contact a carpet professional for service.

 

Soiling – This is the build-up of particles of soil and similar materials that cling to carpet fibers.  Thorough vacuuming and proper routine cleaning (Fabrica recommends a dry extraction professional cleaning every 12 months) should minimize this problem.  Improper cleaning can actually enhance the problem, as soap residue left behind from the cleaning attracts soil and increases the carpet fiber’s propensity for soil adhesion.

High quality carpet can aid in the prevention of visible soiling, as can darker colored carpet and stain protection added at manufacturing.  Fabrica does not recommend the addition of soil or stain protection once the carpet is “in service”, and some after market additives can actually void your Fabrica and/or fiber producer’s warranties.  Please consult our Customer Service Department before adding any after market soil or stain protection.  All Fabrica nylon products are treated to manage soil and stain.

 

Soil Resist – A chemical finish applied to the carpet fiber and/or surface that inhibits the propensity for soil to attach to the carpet.

 

Solution Dyed – Yarn that is dyed in conjunction with being extruded, as opposed to yarn dyed (dyed after it has been converted to yarn), or beck or continuous dyeing, both of which are means of dyeing carpet after it has been tufted.

 

Space Dyed – Yarn where each individual yarn is dyed two or more colors that alternate along the length.

 

Spinning – A term for both yarn and fiber production.  To the fiber manufacturer, spinning is synonymous with extrusion of polymer throughout the small holes of the spinneret into synthetic fiber.  To the conventional textile yarn mill, spinning is the conversion of staple fiber into spun yarn; much like our ancestors did with spinning wheel yarns.

 

Sprouting – The condition whereby small tufts of yarn “sprout” above the level of the rest of the carpet.  In most cases, the best cure is simply to cut the offending yarn to the level of those around it with sharp scissors.  Do not try to pull out these “sprouts,” as they are most likely attached to other yarns in the carpet itself, which can then be loosened as well.

 

Spun Dyed – See Solution Dyed

 

Stains – Stains are spills of normal household substances that have either not been tended to in time, or are of a material that somehow “over-dyes” the carpet.  High quality carpet is dyed via the appropriate combination of water pH, temperature, and the presence of “dye stuffs”.  Some household products (such as coffee) can actually work very effectively as a carpet dye.

High quality carpet can aid in the prevention of visible stains, as can darker colored carpet and stain protection added at manufacturing.  Fabrica does not recommend the addition of soil or stain protection once the carpet is “in service”, and some after-market additives can actually void your Fabrica and/or fiber producer’s warranties.  Please consult our Customer Service Department before adding any after-market soil or stain protection.

 

Stain Resist – a chemical finish applied to the carpet fiber and/or surface that inhibits the propensity for stains to attach to the carpet.

 

Staple – Short lengths of fiber that may be converted into spun yarns by textile yarn spinning processes.  The fibers can be any variable length, from short pieces to 8 inches, and are then spun into yarn via carding, drafting, and finally, spinning.  Fabrica uses long staple fibers, usually 6 inches to 8 inches in length, which provide a smoother appearance and hand and results in less fiber loss.

 

Staple Yarn – A type of yarn whereby the extruded fibers are cut into relatively short pieces, mixed together with other fibers, and then separated into bundles in preparation for twist and heatset.

 

Static Discharge – Static electricity in carpet can be an annoying problem, especially when your carpet is new.  When the normal moisture returns, the static should greatly subside.  This humidifying process may take as long as several months, depending upon the condition of the air to which the carpet is exposed.  Also, daily use will minimize the amount of static.  Fabrica uses long staple fibers, usually 6 inches to 8 inches in length, which provide a smoother appearance and hand, and result in less fiber loss.

Commercial static reducing sprays are only temporary and are not recommended.  They may leave a substantial residue, causing the carpet to soil at an accelerated pace.  If you need a temporary fix, put a humidifier in the room.  This will reduce the static charge build-up in the carpet.

Many of today’s fine carpets (and all of Fabrica’s synthetic fiber products) are constructed of advanced generation nylon fibers.  These fibers have built-in, static reducing capabilities so that under most atmospheric conditions, a normally sensitive individual cannot feel any static charge.

 

Stay Tacking – A carpet installation term for temporary nailing or tacking to hold the stretch until the entire installation is stretched over and fastened onto the tackless strip.  An important technique in large contract installations, which are too large to stretch in one step.

 

Step Return – A term for that part of a staircase tread that extends over the riser.  Also know as a bullnose or extended nosing.

 

Stitch (Stitches, Stitch Rate) – The number of individual tufts of carpet running lengthwise, usually measured per inch or per six inches.

 

Stitch Length – Total length of yarn from which a tuft is made.  It is numerically equal to twice the pile height plus the associated back stitch behind the primary backing.

 

Stock Dyed Yarn – Colored spun yarn produced from fibers dyed in staple form.  The term does not encompass yarns spun from solution dyed staples.

 

Stretch (or Stretch-In) – An installation procedure for carpet over separate cushion using a tackless strip; only properly performed with a power stretcher.

 

Stuffer – A backing yarn in woven carpet.  Stuffers are, normally, large warp yarns (lengthwise yarns) that increase weight, strength, hand, stiffness and stability.

 

Stuffer Box – In yarn manufacture, a device into which individual fibers are forced in mass in order to crimp or add volume to the fibers.

Swatch – A small carpet sample.  At Fabrics, each product typically comes in a “small swatch” (3 inches by 6 inches), and a “large swatch” which is either 6 inches by 12 inches for cut pile and very small patterned carpets, or 12 inches by 12 inches for larger patterns.

 

Synthetic Fibers – Synthetic fibers are, as the name implies, the result of a chemical synthesis of two or more chemicals.  Most synthetic fibers are derived from combing by-products of the energy industry, i.e., petroleum coal or natural gas by-products.  Synthetics are classified as thermal plastic resins.

 

100% Transfer – The full coverage of the carpet floor adhesive into the carpet backing, including the recesses of the carpet back, while maintaining full coverage of the floor.

 

Tackless Strip – Wood or metal strips fastened to the floor near the walls.  The strips have two or three rows of nails angled up toward the walls, to which carpet backing is attached during a stretch-in installation.

 

Template – Material (typically paper) used to trace the dimensions of a room where measurements are critical, such as in the manufacture of a wall-to-wall rug.

 

Tensile Strength – The greatest stretching force a yarn, fabric or carpet can bear without breaking.

 

Texture – Surface characteristics of carpet pile, including such aesthetic and structural elements as high-low or cut / loop patterning, yarn twist, pile erectness or layover, harshness or softness to the touch, luster, and yarn dimensions.

 

Texture Retention (or conversely, Texture Loss) – The amount that a carpet retains or loses its texture is controlled by the individual carpet yarns doing so.  The degree of twist put into yarn during its manufacture (a focus of Fabrica’s products), helps define how well a yarn will perform.

Under normal wear and with proper maintenance, a carpet’s texture should not change dramatically.  However, as carpet ages, it is normal for traffic areas to lose more texture than areas without traffic (such as under furniture).  Frequent vacuuming will help prevent/alleviate this problem, as will furniture rotation.

 

Thermal Conductivity – The ability of a material to transmit heat.  Good insulators, including some carpet, have high thermal resistivity (R-value) and low thermal conductivity.

 

Tip Sheared – A carpet texture created just like random shearing, but is typically less pronounced.

 

Textured – See Frieze.

 

Tone on Tone – A carpet pattern made by using two or more shades of the same color.

 

Top Colors – In printed or woven colored patterns, top colors are the ones forming the pattern elements, as distinguished from background or ground colors.

 

Total Weight – The weight of a finished carpet (per square yard), including pile, primary backings, secondary backing, latex and any coatings added.

 

Trackless – See Frieze.

 

Tread – The upper horizontal part of a step.

Tuft – An individual yarn (either cut or one-half of a loop) resulting from a single penetration of the primary backing by a threaded needle.

 

Tuft Bind – A measure of the individual tuft’s adhesion to the carpet backing.  The force required to pull a tuft from a carpet.

 

Tufting – A carpet manufacturing term, tufts of yarn are inserted through a carpet backing to create a pile of cut and/or loop ends.  This is the method that Fabrica exclusively uses to manufacture its carpet.

 

Tuft Length – See Pile Height.

 

Twist – A yarn manufacturing process, whereby the fiber bundles are brought together and wound around each other (twisted and then heatset) to help the yarn bundle stay together and to improve performance by increasing its resistance to pile crush.  Fabrica is known throughout the industry for the very high levels of twist we specify for many of our yarns.

 

Two-Tone – A design or pattern obtained by using two shades of the same color.

 

Underlay – The cushion or padding that lies underneath rugs.  The proper padding not only feels best, but also can dramatically improve the carpet’s performance.  Fabrica recommends padding of a high-quality composite type, no more than 1/2″ thick.  Our Affirm® padding is 7/16 inch, 9-pound density.

 

Unitary Backing – A backing style whereby no physical secondary backing is used; rather, a heavy application of latex serves as the backing.

 

Velvet Cut Pile – Cut pile carpet with an incredibly smooth surface refinement.  The individual tufts of yarn are virtually imperceptible, creating an elegant, formal look that is reminiscent of suede or velvet.

 

Wall-to-Wall Rugs – Rugs manufactured specifically to be installed in a wall-to-wall fashion, as you would normally install carpet.

 

Warp – A weaving term for yarns that run lengthwise in woven fabrics and carpets.  Warp yarns are usually delivered to the loom from a beam, a large spool with hundreds of ends of yarn wound on it, mounted behind the loom.  Woven carpets usually have three sets of warp yarns, which may be wound on three loom beams.  These Include stuffer warp for lengthwise strength and stiffness, pile warp, which forms the carpet surface tufts, and chain warp, which interlaces with fill yarn to lock the structure together.

 

Watermarking – See Shading.

 

Weaving – A fabric formation process used for manufacturing carpet in which yarns are interlaced to form cloth.  The weaving loom interlaces lengthwise (warp) and widthwise (filling) yarns.  Carpet weaves are complex, often involving several sets of warp and filling yarns.  See Axminster, Wilton and Velvet.

 

Weft – The yarn that runs widthwise in woven cloth or carpet, interlacing with the warp yarns.  See Filling Yarn.

 

Wilton Carpet – A woven carpet, originally a loop pile construction.  The loom became known as a “Wilton” when cut pile was introduced.  Wilton carpets produce high quality cloth in either plain coloring or patterned, in a limited number of colors.  The Wilton weaving method is used largely for creating plain carpet and patterned carpet with up to five colors.  In this type of weaving, the pile and the backing materials are closely interwoven.  In patterned Wilton, the pile yarn not appearing on the surface is woven into the backing, thus producing a very firm and dimensionally stable material.

Variations in the traditional Wilton weaving method include carved pile carpets and a type of loop pile carpet.  Some Wilton carpets are manufactured by what is known as the face-to-face method or sandwich weaving in which two carpets are woven simultaneously, and then the pile strands in the sandwich are slit apart to form two lengths of carpet.

 

Wire Height – In woven carpet, the height of the pile tuft is determined by the wire height.  See Wires.

 

Wires – Component of a carpet weaving loom on which the pile tufts are formed.  Round wires produce loop pile carpet, and flat wires with sharp blades produce cut pile (plush) textures.

 

Woolen System Yarn – Spun yarn, composed of any natural or synthetic fiber, manufactured by the woolen system spinning process.  Compared to worsted-system or parallel-spun yarns, which are common to most tufted carpet, woolen yarns are soft, bulky and hairy.  Staple for woolen spinning is short, in the 3.5 to 5.5 inch range.

 

Worsted Yarn – Spun yarn composed of any natural or synthetic fiber, manufactured by the worsted, or parallel spinning process.  Most yarns for tufted carpet are parallel, spun.  Staple for worsted spinning is long, often in the 6 to 8 inch range.  In worsted yarns, the fibers are relatively parallel, and the yarns are relatively smooth and compact in structure.  Worsted yarns are most often used in apparel.

 

Woven Carpet – Carpet that is manufactured on a weaving loom in which the lengthwise yarns and widthwise yarns are interlocked to form a fabric.

 

Yarn – A continuous strand composed of fibers or filaments and used in tufting, weaving and knitting to form carpet and other fabrics.  Carpet yarn is often plied and may be either spun or continuous filament.

 

Yarn Beams – A method of supplying yarn to the tufting machine, whereby the yarn is wound onto large beams (many yarns to a beam) which are then used to supply yarn to the individual needles.

 

Yarn Cones – A method of supplying yarn to the tufting machine, whereby the yarn is wound on individual cones (one yarn to a cone) which are then used to supply yarn to the individual needles.

 

Yarn Dyeing – See Skein Dyeing.

 

Yarn Ply – See Ply.

 

Yarn Encapsulation – The degree to which the yarn on the back of the primary backing is surrounded by and infused with latex before the secondary backing is applied.

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